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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Glossary Term

An eye condition that affects a tiny part of the retina at the back of your eye, called the macula. It causes problems with central vision, but does not lead to total loss of sight
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Albinism Glossary Term

Albinism is a comparatively rare genetically inherited group of conditions which results in a reduction or complete lack of pigment (colour) in the skin, hair and eyes of people with the condition. This can result in pale skin which burns easily in the sun, virtually white hair, very severe short-sight and photophobia (a severe sensitivity to light).
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Alstrom syndrome Glossary Term

Alstrom Syndrome is an ultra rare recessively inherited genetic disorder, which means that both parents will carry the gene although probably be unaffected themselves. ASUK know of around 80 families in the UK who are affected, this figure could be higher due to delayed diagnosis and the rarity of the condition, many may still be undiagnosed. The condition is characterised by retinal degeration, hearing loss, obesity & insulin resistance.
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Aniridia Glossary Term

Aniridia is a rare congenital eye condition causing incomplete formation of the iris. This can cause loss of vision, usually affecting both eyes.
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Anophthalmia Glossary Term

Anophthalmia is a medical term that is used to describe the absence of the globe and ocular (eye) tissue from the orbit.
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Behcet's Syndrome Glossary Term

A chronic condition caused by disturbances in the body's immune system and around 70% of patients will experience inflamation of the eye.
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Best's disease Glossary Term

Best's disease, also known as Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy, is a hereditary form of progressive macular dystrophy first identified in 1905.
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Birdshot uveitis Glossary Term

A form of uveitis where oval spots can be seen on the retina.
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Blepharitis (eyelid problems) Glossary Term

An inflamation of the eyelids which can make the eyes feel irritated or itchy, but rarely causes serious eye damage.
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Cataract Glossary Term

Cataracts are formed when the lens inside the eye gradually changes and becomes less transparent (clear), making vision mistier. More information at Cataract page.
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Cerebrovascular disease Glossary Term

Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems that affect the blood supply to the brain. One of the most common types is stroke, which can cause loss of vision in one eye or on one side of the field of vision
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Charles Bonnet syndrome Glossary Term

A condition where people who have lost their sight experience hallucinations.
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Chorioretinitis (choroid retinitis) Glossary Term

A form of uveitis where the inflamation affects the back of the eye.
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Choroidal degeneration Glossary Term

Mentioned on CVI, but no reliable definition found.
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Coat's Disease Glossary Term

A progressive condition of the retinal capillaries which occurs in children and young adults, usually males.
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Coloboma Glossary Term

A gap in part of the structure of the eye, caused when a baby's eyes do not develop properly in pregnancy.
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Colour blindness Glossary Term

Effects can vary: there are extremely rare cases where people are unable to see any colour at all, but most can see as clearly as other people but are unable to fully see red, green or blue.
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Congenital cataracts Glossary Term

Cataracts which are present at birth (rather than as part of the ageing process).
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Corneal dystrophies Glossary Term

A group of eye conditions affecting the cornea.
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Corneal transplantation Glossary Term

A treatment rather than condition??
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Deafblindness Glossary Term

A person is deafblind if they have a combined sight and hearing impairment that causes difficulties with communication, access to information and mobility.
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Degenerative Vitreous Syndrome (DVS) Glossary Term

The spontaneous occurrence in the aging vitreous of opacities (floaters) that substantially interfere with activities of daily living.
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Diabetes/diabetic retinopathy Glossary Term

Diabetes can affect the eye in several ways, the most common being problems with blood vessels in the eye.
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Dry eye Glossary Term

Caused by a problem with the tears which leaves eyes feeling dry, scratchy and uncomfortable.
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Dystonia Glossary Term

A range of movement disorders that can affect the eye.
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Flashes/floaters Glossary Term

Flashes of light/small dark spots or strands which move. Generally harmless, but can be sign of retinal detachment
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Fuch's dystrophy Glossary Term

A form of corneal dystrophy which occurs later in life.
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Giant cell or temporal arteritis Glossary Term

A condition affecting the arteries which can cause serious sight loss if untreated.
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Glaucoma Glossary Term

A group of eye conditions which cause optic nerve damage and can affect vision. Glaucoma damages the optic nerve at the point where it leaves your eye.
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Hemianopia Glossary Term

An effect of stroke where one half of the visual field can be lost.
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Keratitis Glossary Term

An inflamation of the cornea.
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Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedel (LMBB) Glossary Term

An inherited genetic condition. Effects can include viual impairment caised by rod-cone dystrophy, often diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa.
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Light sensitivity (photophobia) Glossary Term

An inability to cope with glare which can be associated with another eye condition, or a side-effect of certain drugs.
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Macular Degeneration Glossary Term

Loss of central vision due to damage to the macular. Most common in older people (AMD) but can occur in younger people.
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Macular hole Glossary Term

A small hole in the macular - different from macular degeration. Causes problems such as straight lines appearing wavy.
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Marfan syndrome Glossary Term

A disorder of the connective tissue which can affect the eyes.
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Microphthalmia Glossary Term

Microphthalmia literally means small eye. Children may be born with one or both eyes, small and underdeveloped. Some children may be blind, but others may have some residual sight or light perception.
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Monocular vision Glossary Term

Blinding or removal of one eye due to accident, injury or disease.
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Myopia (high degree) Glossary Term

A chronic, degenerative condition which can create problems because of its association with degenerative changes at the back of the eye.
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Neoplasia Glossary Term

Form of eye cancer??? Check this??
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Neurofibromatosis Glossary Term

One of the most common neurological conditions, caused by a single gene mutation. May cause eye growths.
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Norrie Disease Glossary Term

Norrie disease is a rare X-linked genetic condition which causes boys to be born blind or with severe sight impairment. Secondary symptoms can include progressive hearing loss, cognitive impairment, autism and delayed development.
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Nystagmus Glossary Term

A continuous uncontrolled to and fro movement of the eyes.
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Ocular pemphigoid Glossary Term

An autoimmune condition which affects the eyes by causing inflammation of the conjunctiva which is the thin layer covering both the white part of the eye (the sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids. The inflammation causes redness, discomfort, grittiness and dryness of the eyes.
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Optic atrophy Glossary Term

Damage to the optic nerve.
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Posterior vitreous detachment Glossary Term

A change in your eye (such as floaters) which is frustrating but does not normally cause sight loss.
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Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE) Glossary Term

Condition affecting the macular in one or both eyes, causing problems with central vision.
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Punctate inner choroidopathy Glossary Term

A type of 'white dot syndrome' characterised by small yellow/white dots or lesions which are visible in an examination of the retina.
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Retinal detachment Glossary Term

Occurs when the retinal layers separate from the retinal pigment epithelium - must be treated urgently.
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Retinal vessal occlusion Glossary Term

A blockage in the blood vessels of the eye that can cause sight loss.
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Retinitis pigmentosa Glossary Term

Changes to vision which may include difficulties in dim vision/dark, and loss of peripheral vision.
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Retinoblastoma Glossary Term

A fast-growing eye cancer of early childhood.
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Retinopathy of prematurity Glossary Term

Generally associated with premature birth - before development of the eyes is complete.
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Sarcoidosis Glossary Term

A condition where abnormal lumps or nodules form in one or more parts of the body, which may include the eyes.
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Severely sight impaired (SSI) Glossary Term

Term used to describe someone with severe sight loss. Formerly know as 'blind', this category is used by Social Services Departments for registration purposes. (See Sight impaired (SI)).
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Sight impaired (SI) Glossary Term

Term used to describe someone with sight loss. Formerly know as 'partially sighted', this category is used by Social Services Departments for registration purposes. (See Severely sight impaired (SSI)).
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Sjogrens syndrome Glossary Term

A disorder of the immune system. White blood cells attack the body's tear and saliva glands, which reduces the amount of saliva and tears produced, causing a dry mouth and dry eyes, along with other related symptoms.
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Squint in childhood Glossary Term

A problem when the eyes stop working together as a pair and therefore do not look in the same direction.
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Stargardt's disease Glossary Term

Causes some of the cells on the macula to stop working leading to problems with central vision, detailed vision and sometimes with colour perception.
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Stickler syndrome Glossary Term

A genetic progressive condition, which affects the body's collagen (connective tissue). Possible impacts on the eye include cataracts, glaucoma & high risk of retinal detachment.
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Stroke-related eye conditions Glossary Term

Stroke can result in visual field loss, blurry vision, double vision and moving images.
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Thyroid eye disease Glossary Term

A condition of the soft tissues such as the fat and muscles surrounding the eyes which is characterised by a period of inflammation and engorgement of these tissues, followed by a healing response.
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Toxoplasmosis Glossary Term

Toxoplasmosis is a common infection from which most patients make a full recovery. However in more serious cases it can spread to the eyes causing loss of sight.
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Usher syndrome Glossary Term

Form of deafblindness where people are born deaf or hard of hearing and start to lose their sight (with retinitis pigmentosa) in the school years.
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Uveitis Glossary Term

An inflamation of the middle layer of the eye (the uvea)
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Visual cortex disorder Glossary Term

Mentioned on CVI, but no reliable definition found.
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Wolfram syndrome Glossary Term

Wolfram Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which is also known as DIDMOAD syndrome after its 4 most common features (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness). Everyone with Wolfram Syndrome will have optic atrophy at some stage, which means that the optic nerve wastes away and causes colour blindness and gradual loss of vision. Wolfram Syndrome is very rare and affects around 1 in 770,000 of the total UK population.
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